Preventive care for Mental Disability

In case of history of mental disability from earlier generations of father or mother (hereditary disorder), it is advisable to undergo the medical examination before conceiving and take decision after medical consultation.

It is advisable that, age of the woman should be within the range of 18 to 35 years and that of the man should not be above 55 years.Pregnancy at an advanced age has the risk of Mongolism. In such case, it is recommended to go for Triple Marker Test. Similarly, Foetal Anomaly Scan enables us to understand disability of the child inside womb.

Certain Pregnancy Tests & Blood Tests can reduce the risk of hereditary chromosomes disorders, Brain & Nervous system disorders as well as Metabolism disorders. (It is difficult to understand how testing can reduce risks. This may need explanation.) Similarly, advanced medical facilities & highly skilled doctors enable us to avoid the risk.

Vaccination for Polio, T.B; Chickenpox,Titanus etc. should be done after birth.

Many parents don’t think of the second child if their first child is mentally disabled. On the contrary, some parents don’t take proper precaution for the second child even if their first child is mentally disabled. Considering these factors, we thought it appropriate to mention here the causes of mental disability & preventive measures of the same. Accepting the fact of the child’s mental disability at an appropriate time helps in solving most of the problems related to it.

All the mentally disabled children are different from each other. They all have different mental capabilities. They can be categorized as follows on the basis of their I.Q.

Mild Mental Retardation(I.Q. 50 to 70): An adult in this category has the intelligence equivalent to a kid of 8 to 10 yrs. They lack imagination, curiosity, decision making etc. Very rarely they have any mental or physical disorder. If provided education &training under observation, they can earn their own livelihood. Generally, they lack the ability to socialize well.
Moderate Mental Retardation ( I.Q. 35 to 49): An adult in this category has the intelligence equivalent to a kid of 4 to 7 yrs. With some efforts, reading & writing is possible. Some physical disorders are found in them.
Severe Mental Retardation ( I.Q. 20 to 34) : Speaking disorder is found in these people. They are not capable of taking proper care of their health or socializing. They are dependent on others.
Profound Mental Retardation ( I.Q. less than 20) :Multiple physical disorders are found in these people. They have to be kept under constant observation & taken care of.

Some other disorders are also found in these people with mental disability like….

1.Dyslexia – Reading problem – It is very difficult for them to have a proper understanding and growth of language.

2.Dyscalculia – People belonging to this category have the problems in calculations.

3.Dysgraphia – These people have problem in writing.

4.Dyspraxia – In this category, people have problems in minute movements.

These people have a very slow progress. They lack concentration. They have a weak memory, are fickle minded. Because of these factors, the mentally disabled have high proportion of behavioral problems. Non acceptance of the fact on the part of parents that their child is mentally disabled makes it worse. Trying to keep these children at home instead of sending them to schools makes them introvert in a negative manner, aggravating their behavioral problems. On the contrary, mingling with the children suffering from similar disorders at the school reduces the inferiority complex in them and of their parents. As a result, they behave more confidently in social environment.